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Sujets que j'ai initié

  1. Laylat Al Qadr

    Posté 24 sept. 2008

    Sourate 97 : La destiné (al-Qadr)

    1.Nous l’avons certes, fait descendre [le Coran] pendant la nuit d’al-Qadr
    2.Et qui te dira ce qu’est la nuit d’al-Qadr ?
    3.La nuit d’al-Qadr est meilleure que mille mois.
    4.Durant celle-ci descendent les anges ainsi que l’Esprit, par permission de leur Seigneur pour tout ordre.
    5.Elle est paix et salut jusqu’à l’apparition de l’aube.
  2. La Culture Generale Des Americains

    Posté 3 sept. 2008

  3. What Goes Around Comes Around

    Posté 16 août 2008

    His name was Fleming, and he was a poor Scottish farmer. One day, while trying to make a living for his family, he heard a cry for help coming from a nearby bog. He dropped his tools and ran to the bog.

    There, mired to his waist in black muck, was a terrified boy, screaming and struggling to free himself. Farmer Fleming saved the lad from what could have been a slow and terrifying death.

    The next day, a fancy carriage pulled up to the Scotsman's sparse surroundings. An elegantly dressed nobleman stepped out and introduced himself as the father of the boy Farmer Fleming had saved.

    'I want to repay you,' said the nobleman. 'You saved my son's life.'

    'No, I can't accept payment for what I did,' the Scottish farmer replied waving off the offer. At that moment, the farmer's own son came to the door of the family hovel.

    'Is that your son?' the nobleman asked.

    'Yes,' the farmer replied proudly.

    'I'll make you a deal. Let me provide him with the level of education my own son will enjoy If the lad is anything like his father, he'll no doubt grow to be a man we both will be proud of.' And that he did.

    Farmer Fleming's son attended the very best schools and in time, graduated from St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, and went on to become known throughout the world as the noted Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of Penicillin.

    Years afterward, the same nobleman's son who was saved from the bog was stricken with pneumonia.

    What saved his life this time? Penicillin.

    The name of the nobleman? Lord Randolph Churchill .. His son's name?

    Sir Winston Churchill.

    Someone once said: What goes around comes around.
  4. Khat - Description

    Posté 23 juil. 2008


    Khat (Catha edulis, family Celastraceae), pronounced "cot" and also known as qat, gat, chat, and miraa, is a flowering plant native to tropical East Africa. Believed to originate in Ethiopia, it is a shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall, with evergreen leaves 5–10 cm long and 1–4 cm broad. The flowers are produced on short axillary cymes 4–8 cm long, each flower small, with five white petals. The fruit is an oblong three-valved capsule containing 1–3 seeds.

    Cultivation and uses

    Khat has been grown for use as a stimulant for centuries in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. There, chewing khat predates the use of coffee and is used in a similar social context. Its fresh leaves and tops are chewed or, less frequently, dried and consumed as tea, in order to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation. Due to the availability of rapid, inexpensive air transportation, the drug has been reported in London, Rome, Amsterdam, Canada, Australia and the United States. The public has become more aware of this exotic drug through media reports pertaining to the United Nations mission in Somalia, where khat use is endemic, and its role in the Persian Gulf. The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat in Yemen, chat in Ethiopia, jaad in Somalia and miraa in Kenya.

    Khat use has traditionally been confined to the regions where khat is grown, because only the fresh leaves have the desired stimulating effects. In recent years improved roads, off-road motor vehicles and air transport have increased the global distribution of this perishable commodity. Traditionally, khat has been used as a socializing drug, and this is still very much the case in Yemen where khat-chewing is a predominantly male habit. In other countries, khat is consumed largely by single individuals and at parties. It is mainly a recreational drug in the countries which grow khat, though it may also be used by farmers and laborers for reducing physical fatigue, and by drivers and students for improving attention. This is similar to the use of the coca leaf in South America.

    Khat is used for its mild euphoric and stimulating effects. Because of its anorectic effects, khat is used by some members of the Islamic faith during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim year, which is spent in fasting from sunrise to sunset. It was previously only used by Muslims in Ethiopia, forbidden to those of the Orthodox faith, though today it is gaining popularity among Christians as well.


    The stimulant effect of the plant was originally attributed to cathine, a phenethylamine-type substance isolated from the plant. However, the attribution was disputed by reports showing the plant extracts from fresh leaves contained another substance more behaviorally active than cathine. In 1975, the related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute configuration was established in 1978. Cathinone is not very stable and breaks down to produce cathine and norephedrine. These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine) family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine.

    Khat consumption induces mild euphoria and excitement. Individuals become very talkative under the influence of the drug and may appear to be unrealistic and emotionally unstable. Khat can induce manic behaviors and hyperactivity. Several cases of khat-induced psychosis have been reported in the literature. Khat is an effective anorectic and its use also results in constipation. Dilated pupils (mydriasis), which are prominent during khat consumption, reflect the sympathomimetic effects of the drug, which are also reflected in increased heart rate and blood pressure. A state of drowsy hallucinations (hypnagogic hallucinations) may result coming down from khat use as well. Withdrawal symptoms that may follow prolonged khat use include lethargy, mild depression, nightmares, and slight tremor

    User population

    It is estimated that several million people are frequent users of khat. Many of the users originate from countries between Sudan and Madagascar and in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula, especially Yemen. In Yemen, 60% of the males and 35% of the females were found to be khat users who had chewed daily for long periods of their life. The traditional form of khat chewing in Yemen involves only male users; khat chewing by females is less formal and less frequent. In Saudi Arabia, the cultivation and consumption of khat are forbidden, and the ban is strictly enforced. The ban on khat is further supported by the clergy on the grounds that the Qur'an forbids anything that is harmful to the body. This is in sharp contrast to the opinions of the clergy in Yemen. In Somalia, 61% of the population reported that they do use khat, 18% report habitual use, and 21% are occasional users.


    Khat has not been approved for medical use in the United States, though emigrants have now brought the khat habit to the U.S. While some contend that khat may help these religious and ethnic groups preserve their identity in their new environments, law enforcement agencies in the U.S. generally view its use in the same light as that of the other psychomotor stimulants, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine. Others compare it to the legal stimulant caffeine. The drug has increasingly been brought to the U.S. by these emerging cultural enclaves. Once imported and found on the streets of the US, khat is being used by other populations. Khat leaves are illicitly bundled and shipped into the U.S. Seizures have occurred at all ports of entry and at courier services like FEDEX and UPS. According to the FDIN data base, over 57,000 pounds (26 t) of khat leaves were seized in 1998 and over 24 metric tons of khat seized in 1999. There were over 1 kilogram of cathine and over 44 kilograms of cathinone analyzed in the DEA laboratory system during 1999.


    During 2004, a new pill called "Hagigat" (חגיג ת; combination of "hagiga", meaning "celebration", and gat) was introduced in Israel (which has a sizeable Yemeni population). The pill contains powder made from khat leaves, and carries high levels of cathine and cathonine. It was sold legally as a entheogenic/performance-enhancing drug during most of 2004. However, due to some medical incidents related to the drug, "Hagigat" has been outlawed and is now sold illegally.


    Khat is used by members of the Somali community (mainly men) which is concentrated in London, Cardiff and Sheffield. It is currently legal in the UK although there are calls from some sections of the Somali community for it to be banned.

    Control status

    In 1965, the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Dependence-producing Drugs' Fourteenth Report noted, "The Committee was pleased to note the resolution of the Economic and Social Council with respect to khat, confirming the view that the abuse of this substance is a regional problem and may best be controlled at that level" [1]. For this reason, khat was not Scheduled under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. In 1980 the World Health Organization classified khat as a drug of abuse that can produce mild to moderate psychic dependence.

    Cathine is in Schedule IV and cathinone is in Schedule I of the U.S. Controlled Substance Act. The 1993 DEA rule placing cathinone in Schedule I noted that it was effectively also banning khat:

    Cathinone is the major psychoactive component of the plant Catha edulis (khat). The young leaves of khat are chewed for a stimulant effect. Enactment of this rule results in the placement of any material which contains cathinone into Schedule I.
    In the UK, Cathine and Cathinone are Class C drugs. The plant Catha edulis is uncontrolled. In Germany, Cathine is a controlled substance, and ownership and sale of the plant is illegal. Similar levels of control exist throughout most other European countries.

    In Australia, the importation of khat is controlled under the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations. Individual users may apply for several required licenses to import up to 5kgs per month for personal use (primarily emigrants from the Horn of Africa). In 2003, the total number of khat annual permits was 294 and the total number of individual khat permits was 202."

    "There are two types of import permits. The single use Permit to Import can only be used once and you must request a new permit for each time you wish to import khat. Annual Permits are labelled as such and consist of two pages. Annual Permits allow you to import up to 5 kilograms once a month for up to twelve months." tha_edulis.html
  5. Liberte D'expression Et Sionisme

    Posté 18 juil. 2008

    Le caricaturiste Siné renvoyé de Charlie Hebdo

    Philippe Val, directeur de la publication de l’hebdomadaire satirique, reproche au caricaturiste d’avoir tenu dans une chronique des propos antisémites liés au futur mariage de Jean Sarkozy.
    http://www.liberatio... s/339402.FR.php

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