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Great Kings And Queens Of Africa. An African Heritage Noter : -----

#1 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   [-_-] Icône

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Icône du message  Posté 19 mai 2003 - 09:45

Peace and greetings!

In this series Great Kings and Queens of Africa, I'll share with you short biographies of some of the Great Kings and Queens of our home continent of Africa.

Today we will start with:
Sunni Ali Ber
King of Songhay
(1464 - 1492)

When Sunni Ali Ber came to power, Songhay was a small kingdom in the western Sudan. But during his twenty-eight-year reign, it grew into the largest, most powerful empire in West Africa.

Sunni Ali Ber built a remarkable army and with this ferocious force, the warrior king won battle after battle. He routed marauding nomads, seized trade routes, took villages, and expanded his domain. He captured Timbuktu, bringing into the Songhay empire a major center of commerce culture, and Moslem scholarship.


That's it for today, come back tomorrow for another episode of

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.


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#2 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   [-_-] Icône

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Icône du message  Posté 20 mai 2003 - 06:29

Peace and Greetings!

Welcome back for another episode of...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

Today we will continue with:

Nefertari
Nubian Queen of Egypt
(1292 - 1225 B.C.)


One of many great Nubian queens, Nefertari is heralded as the queen who wed for peace. Her marriage to King Rameses II of Egypt, one of the last greatest Egyptian Pharaohs, began strictly as a political move, a sharing of power between two leaders. Not only did it grow into one of the greatest royal love affairs in history, but brought the hundred years war between Nubia and Egypt to an end. It was an armistice, which lasted over a hundred years.

Even today, a monument stands in Queen Nefertar's honor. In fact, the temple, which Rameses built for her at Abu Simbel, is one of the largest and most beautiful structures ever built to honor a wife, and to celebrate peace.

That's it for today, come back tomorrow for another episode of ...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

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#3 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   [-_-] Icône

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Icône du message  Posté 21 mai 2003 - 02:57

Peace and Greetings!

Welcome back for another episode of...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

Today we will continue with:

Hannibal
Ruler of Carthage
(247 - 183 B.C.)

Regarded as one of the greatest generals of all times, Hannibal and his overpowering African armies conquered major portions of Spain and Italy and came close to defeating the mighty Roman Empire.

Born in the North Africa country of Carthage, Hannibal became general of the army at age twenty-five. His audacious moves-such as marching his army with African war elephants through the treacherous Alps to surprise and conquer Northern Italy-and his tactical genius, as illustrated by the battle of Cannae where his seemingly trapped army cleverly surrounded and destroyed a much larger Roman force, won him recognition which has spanned more than 2000 years.

That's it for today, come back tomorrow for another episode of ...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

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#4 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   [-_-] Icône

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Icône du message  Posté 21 mai 2003 - 08:11

Peace and Greetings!

Welcome back for another episode of...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

Today we will continue with:

Samory Toure
The Black Napoleon of the Sudan
(1830 - 1900)


The ascendance of Samory Toure began when his native Bissandugu was attacked and his mother taken captive. After a persuasive appeal, Samory was allowed to take her place, but later escaped and joined the army of King Bitike Souane of Torona. Following a quick rise through the ranks of Bitike's army. Samory returned to Bissandugu where he was soon installed as king and defied French expansionism in Africa by launching a conquest to unify West Africa into a single state.


During the eighteen-year conflict with France, Samory continually frustrated the Europeans with his military strategy and tactics. This astute military prowess prompted some of France's greatest commanders to entitle the African monarch, "The Black Napoleon of the Sudan".


That's it for today, come back tomorrow for another episode of ...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

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#5 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   [-_-] Icône

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Icône du message  Posté 22 mai 2003 - 05:08

Peace and Greetings!

Welcome back for the final episode of...

Great Kings and Queens of Africa.

Today we will continue with:

Shaka
King of the Zulus
(1818 - 1828)

A strong leader and military innovator, Shaka is noted for revolutionizing 19th century Bantu warfare by first grouping regiments by age, and training his men to use standardized weapons and special tactics. He developed the "assegai", a short stabbing spear, and marched his regiments in tight formation, using large shields to fend off the enemies throwing spears. Over the years, Shaka's troops earned such a reputation that many enemies would flee at the sight of them.

With cunning and confidence as his tools, Shaka built a small Zulu tribe into a powerful nation of more than one million people, and united all tribes in South Africa against Colonial rule.



Moshoeshoe
King of Basutoland
(1518 - 1868)

For half a century, the Basotho people were ruled by the founder of their nation. Moshoeshoe was a wise and just king who was as brilliant in diplomacy as he was in battle. He united many diverse groups, uprooted by war, into a stable society where law and order prevailed and the people could raise their crops and cattle in peace. He knew that peace made prosperity possible, and he often avoided conflict through skillful negotiations.

Hoshoeshoe solidified Basotho defenses at Thaba Bosiu, their impregnable mountain capital. From this stronghold he engineered a number of major victories over superior forces.



Makeda
Queen of Sheba
(960 B.C.)

She gave the king 120 talents of gold, and of spices very great store and precious stones; there came no more abundance of spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon."

Makeda presented gifts to King Solomon of Israel on her famed journey to visit the Judean monarch. But Makeda's gift to Solomon extended beyond material objects; She also gave him a son, Menelek. The boy's remarkable resemblance to his grandfather prompted Solomon to re-christen Menelek. Solomon later re-named his son after his own father, the legendary King David.



Osei Tutu
King of Asante
(1680 - 1717)

Osei Tutu was the founder and first king of the Asante nation, a great West African forest kingdom in what is now Ghana. He was able to convince a half dozen suspicious chiefs to join their states under his leadership when, according to legend, the Golden Stool descended from heaven and came to rest on Osei Tutu's knees, signifying his choice by the gods. The Golden Stool become a sacred symbol of the nation's soul, which was especially appropriate since gold was the prime source of Asante wealth.

During Osei Tutu's reign, the geographic area of Asante tripled in size. The kingdom becomes a significant power that, with his military and political prowess as an example, would endure for two centuries.



Thutmose III
Pharaoh of Egypt
(1504 - 1450 B.C.)

Thutmose III was a member of one of the greatest families in the history of African royalty, a family, which laid the basis for the 18th Dynasty of ancient Egypt. But it was his family which also was the source of his greatest frustration, as he always believed he should have come to power before his sister, Hatshepsut, and was angry over this for most of his life. Ironically, though, it was the assignments she gave him, which not only helped in his rise to power, but also helped him learn and understand the responsibilities of his royal position.

Thutmose III eventually overcome his anger to become on of the most important Pharaohs in Egyptian history, a man who will be remembered as a great warrior who strengthened the sovereignty of Egypt and extended its influence into Western Asia.



Cleopatra VII
Queen of Egypt
(69 - 30 B.C.)

The most famous of seven matriarchs to bear this name, Cleopatra rose to the throne at seventeen. The young queen is often erroneously portrayed as Caucasian, however, she was of both Greek and African descent. By mastering many different languages and several African dialects, she becomes instrumental in reaching beyond the border of Egypt.

Striving to evaluate Egypt to world supremacy, Cleopatra enlisted the military services of two great Roman leaders. She persuaded Julius Caesar and, later, Mark Antony to renounce their Roman allegiances to fight on behalf of Egypt. Each, however, met his death before Cleaopatra's dreams of conquest were realized. Disheartened, Cleopatra pressed an asp to her breast, ending the life of the world's most celebrated African queen.



Nehanda
Nehanda of Zimbabwe

Born into a religious family, Nehanda displayed remarkable leadership and organizational skills, and at a young age becomes one of Zimbabwe's two most influential religious leaders.

When English settlers invaded Zimbabwe in 1896 and began confiscating land and cattle, Nehanda and other leaders declared war. At first they achieved great success, but as supplies ran short, so did battlefield victories. Nehanda was eventually captured, found guilty and executed for ordering the killing of a notoriously cruel Native Commander. Though dead for nearly a hundred years, Nehanda remains what she was when alive - the single most important person in the modern history of Zimbabwe, and is still referred to as Mbuya (Grandmother) Nehanda by Zimbabwean patriots.



Khama
The Good King of Bechuanaland
(1819 - 1923)

Khama distinguished his reign by being highly regarded as a peace-loving ruler with the desire and ability to extract technological innovations from Europeans while resisting their attempts to colonize his country. Such advancements included the building of schools, scientific cattle feeding, and the introduction of a mounted police corps, which practically eliminated all forms of crime.

Respect for Khama was exemplified during a visit with Queen Victoria of England to protest English settlement in Bechuanaland in 1875. The English honored Khama and confirmed his appeal for continued freedom for Bechuanaland.



Tiye
The Nubian Queen of Egypt
(ca. 1415 - 1340 B.C.)

Now it came to pass that, in the 14th century B.C., a wise and beautiful woman from Nubia so captured the heart of the pharaoh, she changed the course of history.

Amenhotep III, the young Egyptian ruler, was so taken by Tiye's beauty, intellect, and will, he defied his nation's priests and custom by proclaiming this Nubian commoner his great Royal Spouse. He publicly expressed his love for his beautiful black queen in many ways, making her a celebrated and wealthy person in her own right. He took her counsel in matters political and military much to heart and later declared that, as he had treated her in life, so should she be depicted in death…as his equal.



Ja Ja
King of the Opobo
(1464 - 1492)

Jubo Jubogha, the son of an unknown member of the Ibo people, was forced into slavery at age 12, but gained his freedom while still young and proposed as an independent trader (knows as Ja Ja by the Europeans). He become chief of his people and the head of his Eastern Nigerian City State of Bonny. He later established and become king of his own territory, Opobo, an area near the Eastern Nigeria River more favorable for trading.

As years passed, European governments, mainly British, attempted to gain control of Nigerian trade. Ja Ja's fierce resistance to any outside influence led to his exile at age 70 to the West Indies by the British. The greatest Ibo chief of the nineteenth century never saw his kingdom again.



Hatshepsut
The Ablest Queen of Far Antiquity
(1503 - 1482 B.C.)

Hatshepsut rose to power after her father Thothmes I was stricken with paralysis. He appointed Hatshepsut as his chief aide and heiress to the throne. While several male rivals sought to oust power, Hatshepsut withstood their challenges to remain leader of what was then the world's leading nation.

To help enhance her popularity with the people of Egypt, Hatshepsut had a number of spectacular temples and pyramids erected. Some of the towering structures still stand today as a reminder of the first true female ruler of a civilized nation. She was indeed the "The Ablest Queen of Far Antiquity" and remained so for thirty-three years.



Tenkamenin
King of Ghana
(1037 - 1075 A.D.)

The country of Ghana reached the height of its greatness during the reign of Tenkamenin. Through his careful management of the gold trade across the Sahara desert into West Africa, Tenkamenin's empire flourished economically. But his greatest strength was in government. Each day he would ride out on horseback and listen to the problems and concerns of his people. He insisted that no one be denied an audience and that they be allowed to remain in his presence until satisfied that justice had been done.

His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make Tenkamenin's reign one of the great models of African rule.



Taharqa
King of Nubia
(710 - 664 B.C.)

At the age of sixteen, this great Nubian King led his armies against the invading Assyrians in defence of his ally, Israel.

During his 25-years reign, Taharqa controlled the largest empire in ancient Africa. His power was equaled only by the Assyrians. These two forces were in constant conflict, but despite the continuous warfare, Taharqa was able to initiate a building program throughout his empire which was overwhelming in scope. The numbers and majesty of his building projects were legendary, with the greatest being the temple at Gebel Barkal in the Sudan. The temple was caved from the living rock and decorated with images of Taharqa over 100 feet high.



Shamba Bolongongo
Africa King of Peace
(1600 - 1620)

Hailed as one the greatest monarchs of the Congo, King Shamba had no greater desire than to preserve the peace, which is reflected in a common quote of his: "Kill neither man, woman nor child. Are they not the children of Chembe (God), and have they not the right to live?" He often had his subjects travel to distant villages wearing their wood-bladed knife of state, which was recognized as their sole means of weaponry.

Shamba was also noted for promoting arts and crafts, and for designing a complex and extremely democratic form of government featuring a system of checks and balances. The government was divides into sectors including military, judicial, and administrative branches and represented all Bushongo people.


Menelek II
King of Kings of Abyssinia
(1844 - 1913)

Proclaimed to be a descendant of the legendary Queen of Sheba and King Solomon, Menelek was the overshadowing figure of his time in Africa. He converted a group of independent kingdoms into the strong, stable empire known as the United States of Abyssinia (Ethiopia).

His feat of pulling together several kingdoms which often fiercely opposed each other earned him a place as one of the great statesmen of African history. His further accomplishments in dealing on the international scene with the world powers, coupled with his stunning victory over Italy in the 1896 Battle of Adwa, an attempt to invade his country, placed him among the great leaders of world history and maintained his country's independence until 1935.



Nzingha
Amazon Queen of Matamba, West Africa
(1582 - 1663)

Many women ranked among the great rulers of Africa including this Angolan queen who was an astute diplomat and excelled as military leader. When the slave-hunting Portuguese attacked the army of her brother's kingdom, Nzingha was sent to negotiate the peace. She did so with astonishing skill and political tact, despite the fact that her brother had her brother had her child killed. She later formed her own army against the Portuguese, and waged war for nearly thirty years. These battles saw a unique moment in colonial history as Nazingha allied her nation with the Dutch, making the first African European alliance against a European oppressor.

Nzingha continued to wield considerable influence among her subjects despite being forced into exile. Because of her quest for freedom and relentless drive to bring peace to her people, Nzingha remains a glimmering symbol of inspiration.



Mansa Kankan Mussa
King of Mali
(1306 - 1332)

A flamboyant leader and world figure, Mansa Mussa distinguished himself as a man who did everything on a grand scale. An accomplished businessman, he managed vast resources to benefit his entire kingdom. He was also a scholar, and imported noteworthy artists to heighten the culture awareness of his people.

In 1324 he led his people on the Hadj, a holy pilgrimage from Timbuktu to Mecca. He caravan consisted of 72,000 people whom he led safely across the Sahara Desert and back, a total distance of 6,496 miles. So spectacular was this event, that Mansa Mussa gained the respect of scholars and traders throughout Europe, and won international prestige for Mali as one of the world's largest and wealthiest empire.


That's it for this series of Great Kings and Queens of Africa, I hope you have enjoyed as much as I did.

until next time,


Peace
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#6 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   Sadiiq Icône

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Posté 22 mai 2003 - 05:25

my dear face what about the kings and queens of somali ppl ???
where is caraweello??? c mon bro... what about us.??? ;)
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#7 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   Desaxee Icône

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Posté 23 mai 2003 - 12:30

And what about the Mad Mullah ?
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#8 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   Somali_psycho Icône

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Posté 23 mai 2003 - 01:20

For Dexasee and Saqiid...See saqiid I am not that bad I care about somali cultur and will share it with you :lol: :lol: :lol:
Mohammed bin Abdullah Hassan, better known as the Mad Mullah, was born in the interior of Somaliland, some say at Kirrit, in the late sixties, his father an Ogaden Somali, his mother a Somali of the Dolbahanta tribe. His boyhood was much like that of other Somali boys, spent sometimes with his fellow-tribesmen and their stock in the interior, sometimes in Berbera. Now and again, perhaps, he voyaged in some friendly buggalow carrying Somali produce, hides and ghee and sheep, to Aden and the Arabian coast. Be this as it may, when he was about seventeen or eighteen, he determined to see the world, and is said to have enrolled at Aden as a fireman in one of the liners plying between East and West. His employment in this capacity must have greatly influenced his future career. For, doubtless, at Egyptian ports in native caravanserais he often listened awestruck to many a strange story of the Mahdi from the mouths of refugees from the Sudan. Following on his experiences at sea, Mohammed having now fully attained to man's estate, made the pilgrimage to Mecca - a journey which is the common ambition of all Somalis. So impressed was he by what he heard and saw that he made several subsequent journeys to the sacred city, joining the Mohammed Salih, an insignificant but fanatical Mohammedan sect, whose tenets are of a harsh and uncompromising nature as compared with those of the Kadariyah, which is the predominant sect in Somaliland. On his return from the last of these pilgrimages in 1895, he gained some notoriety in Berbera by denouncing certain practices of the Kadariyah to somewhat bored and unsympathetic audiences. With all the strident fervency of a born agitator he would inveigh against the luxury of the age, the immorality of chewing " kat," or the gluttony of gorging the fat of sheep's tail. For a living he depended upon the alms of the charitable; and there is an old Arab woman in Berbera who has often wondered whether he would repay the four annas she lent him in the days of his need should the opportunity ever came. He gained but few adherents among the comparatively sophisticated inhabitants of Berbera, and so in 1899 he repaired to the interior, where he lived in the Nogal valley among his mother's kin. Here he started a movement advocating the expulsion of the British infidel from his Mohammedan country. Many adherents Looked to his banner. Some were fired by his religious and political teaching. Others were attracted by promises of the wealth to be gained by raiding the stock of those tribes which espoused the infidel's cause, others again were inspired by a dual motive, religious and material: they saw an admirable opportunity to lay up for themselves treasure in the Mohammedan paradise by confiscating other tribes' treasure upon earth. For three years the Mullah disciplined his follower", eradicating the tribal feeling, which is normally one of the chief characteristics of the Somalis, and substituting his own authority for that of the elders of the tribes. Then early in 1899 he perpetrated his first overt set of hostility to the British Government. Suddenly swooping down upon Burao, a considerable native centre some eighty miles from Berbera, he raided the wealthy Habr Yunis tribe, and forced a section of the Dolbahanta to join him. After the raid, his fighting men were estimated to number 3000.

To resume, the Mullah followed up his first coup of April 1899 by a further successful foray against the Habr Yunis in August, and he reoccupied Burao with a force estimated at 5000 men. He gave himself out as the Mahdi; and ominous rumours spread foretelling an advance on Berbera. The Consul General urged an expedition on the Home Government, but our commitments elsewhere, more particularly in south Africa, were such as to preclude the immediate adoption of this course. During the first seven months of 1900, the Mullah was comparatively inactive, but in August he suddenly swooped down upon the Aidegalla tribe and caused all the friendly tribes to evacuate the Haud in confusion. Next month the Habr Awal tribe suffered severely at his hands.

It would be superfluous to discuss here in any detail the campaigns which followed. They are exhaustively described in the Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-04, published by the War Office in 1907; and it will be sufficient for the purposes of this paper to outline very briefly the general course of events.

The first expedition started in April 1901, and operations terminated in the following July. The force employed consisted of a locally-enlisted and hurriedly-trained levy of 1500 men, of whom 500 were mounted. The casualties inflicted on the Dervishes were estimated at some 1200 killed and wounded, and, in addition, 800 prisoners were taken, including some notable headmen.

The Mullah's power had thus been appreciably shaken, and for a time he remained quiescent. But not for long. In October 1901 he renewed his activities, and, thanks to the illicit arms traffic, he had, by January 1902, not only recovered from his losses, but had forced the majority of the Dolbahanta tribe to return to his standard. By the time our second expedition was launched in June 1902, his following was estimated at 15,000, of whom 12,000 were said to be mounted and 1500 armed with rifles. Against this, our Expeditionary Force consisted of some 2000 rifles, partly King's African Rifles, but principally locally enlisted and locally- trained Somalis. During this expedition, which culminated in the severe but successful action fought at Erigo in October 1902, the Dervishes sustained some 1400 casualties, lost a large number of prisoners and some 25,000 camels, in addition to many sheep, cattle, and horses. But disorganized transport and the shaken moral of the Somali levies prevented the pursuit of the Mullah to his retreat in the Mudug district.

It was now evident that the situation was such as to demand regular and seasoned troops. At the time of the action of Erigo, the force in Somaliland had consisted of 2400 rifles, of which no less than 1500 were local levies. This force was immediately increased by a further contingent of 900 King's African Rifles, and by 300 Indian infantry. A strong column was to advance from Obbia in Italian Somaliland and occupy the Mudug. Another column was to operate on the Berbera-Bohotleh line. And, simultaneously, an Abyssinian fores of 5000 rifles, accompanied by British officers, was to advance along the Webi Shebeli, to prevent the Mullah's retreat westward. The advance from Obbia commenced on the 22nd February 1903; and the enemy immediately fell back on Walwal and Wardair, denying us an opportunity of trying conclusions with his main force. On two occasions, however, small advance parties engaged large forces of Dervishes. At Gumburu, a reconnaissance of two companies of the 2nd King's African Rifles and 48 rifles of the 2nd Sikhs came up with the Mullah's main force, commanded, so it is said, by their chief in person. The fight which ensued appears to have lasted two and a half hours. The Dervishes charged the British square from dense bush some 300 to 600 yards distant, their horsemen and riflemen being driven back time and again with cruel losses. The square was eventually broken by a rush of spearmen, but not before all our ammunition had been exhausted. The Dervish casualties, estimated by some at 2700, are unknown: for no British officer survived to tell the true story of Gumburu. Our casualties were all officers (9) and 187 men killed and 29 men wounded. Another action at Daratoleh - in which were engaged some 800 Dervishes, flushed with their victory at Gumburu, with their leaders wearing the uniforms of the dead British officers - resulted in the infliction of heavy casualties on the enemy, our losses amounting to 2 officers and 13 men killed, and 4 officers and 25 men wounded. In the meantime the Abyssinians inflicted a crushing defeat on the Dervishes, claiming to have killed 1000 of their spearmen. Immediately after this engagement, which took place on the 31st May 1903, the Mullah made a daring but successful movement eastward to the Nogal valley. Unfortunately, however, it was impossible to intercept this movement, as, owing to camel transport and other difficulties, our troops were being withdrawn to Bohotleh.

His Majesty's Government now derided on a further increase to our force in Somaliland in view of the Mullah's position in the Nogal and its proximity to our sphere. More than 8000 troops, of which 1000 were British, were employed, in the hope that the Mullah's power would be permanently shattered. The enemy's force, which numbered between 6000 and 8000 fighting Dervishes, was concentrated at Jidballi, where the Mullah, deriding to make a stand, received a most crushing defeat. His casualties in the actual fight at Jidballi (both January 1904) must have been very large; but far greater were his losses during the course of his subsequent flight northwards to Jidali, and thence eastward into Italian territory. On the other hand, our casualties were slight, except in officers, of whom 3 were killed and 9 wounded, out of a total of 27 killed and 37 wounded of all ranks. It appears that the Mullah only sought sanctuary in Italian territory after receiving solemn assurances of a safe passage from Osman Mahmoud, the Sultan of the Mijjertein, the Italian Somali tribe, who was equally solemnly pledged to us to prevent him from crossing the Italian frontier. Had it not been for this breach of faith, the Mullah would doubtless have had no alternative but to surrender

Thus, this fourth expedition was completely successful in all but bringing the Mullah himself to bay, and so putting an end to his movement. The greater portion of his wealth, which among a desert dwelling nomad people consists of the flocks and herds upon which their very existence depends, had been captured. The moral of his Dervishes as a fighting body had been utterly destroyed; and their numbers, estimated at 6000 to 8000 before Jidballi, could not have exceeded 800 on the conclusion of the campaign. Above all, the Mullah's personal prestige was temporarily shattered; and the discredited refugee in Italian territory must have out a poor figure as compared with the defiant enemy who, during the third expedition, indited the following letter to the British people: - I wish to rule my own country and protect my own religion. If you will, send me a letter saying whether there is to be peace or war. I intend to go from Burao to Berbera I warn you of this - I wish to fight with you. I like war, but you do not. God willing, I will take many rifles from you, but you will get no rifles or ammunition from me. I have no forts, no houses, no country. I have no cultivated fields, no silver, no gold for you to take. I have nothing. If the country were cultivated or contained houses or property, it would be worth your while to fight. The country is all jungle, and that is of no use to you. If you want wood and stone, you can get them in plenty. There are also many ant-heaps. The sun is very hot. All you can get from me is war - nothing else. I have met your men in battle, and have killed them. We are greatly pleased at this. Our men who have fallen in battle have won paradise. God fights for us. We kill, and you kill. We fight by God's order. That is the truth. We ask for God's blessing. God is with me when I write this. If you wish for war, I am happy; and, if you wish for peace, I am content also. But if you wish for peace, go Solvay from my country back to your own. If you wish for war, stay where you are. Hearken to my words. I wish to exchange a machine gun for ammunition. If you do not want it, I will sell it to some one else. bend me a letter saying whether you desire war or peace."

In March 1905, the Illig or Pestalozza Agreement was concluded between the Italian Government and the Mullah, whereby peace was declared between the Dervishes on the one hand and the British and Italian Governments on the other. The Mullah was assigned a port and certain territories in Italian Somaliland, beyond which he and his Dervishes undertook not to encroach. The Mullah also agreed to become an Italian protected subject. This agreement was, however, nullified soon after it was concluded, as the Mullah left Italian territory, and by 1907 had re-established himself on the British side, raiding and looting far and wide.
"Try and be a sheet of paper with nothing on it. Be a spot of ground where nothing is growing, where something might be planted, a seed, possibly from the Absolute." J. Rumi
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#9 L'utilisateur est hors-ligne   Desaxee Icône

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Posté 24 mai 2003 - 02:25

Thanks somali-psycho , je savais brievement la vie de Mad Mullah et ses aspirations politiques et surtout que la religion musulmane a ete importante dans sa vision des choses.
J'ai toujours ete fascinee par la vie de ce gars et je trouve que c'est dommage qu'on nous a pas enseignee a l'ecole des gars aussi importants que lui pour notre histoire est-africaine.
J'aurais prefere etudier Menelik que Naopoleon .
On connait presque rien sur nos grands Rois/Reines/Guerriers.
Shame on our Education System.
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